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Hunter Peterson
Hunter Peterson

Tank əleyhinə minaların tarixi və inkişafı


Anti-tank mines: What are they and how do they work?




Introduction




Landmines are explosive devices that are concealed under or on the ground, and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, such as combatants, vehicles, or tanks, as they pass over or near them. Landmines can be divided into two types: anti-personnel mines, which are designed to injure or kill people; and anti-tank mines, which are designed to damage or destroy vehicles, especially tanks and armored fighting vehicles.




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Anti-tank mines are a type of landmine that has been used in warfare since the First World War, when tanks were first introduced by the British. Since then, anti-tank mines have evolved in design, function, and deployment, and have been used in many conflicts around the world. However, anti-tank mines also pose a serious threat to civilians and the environment, as they can remain active for many years after a conflict has ended, causing casualties, injuries, and economic losses.


In this article, we will explore what anti-tank mines are, how they work, how they are used in modern warfare, and how they affect civilians and the environment. We will also discuss some of the legal and ethical issues surrounding anti-tank mines, and some of the efforts to clear and ban them.


How anti-tank mines work




Definition and types of anti-tank mines




An anti-tank mine is a type of landmine that is designed to damage or destroy vehicles, especially tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Compared to anti-personnel mines, anti-tank mines typically have a much larger explosive charge, and a fuze that is designed to be triggered by vehicles or, in some cases, remotely or by tampering with the mine.


Anti-tank mines can be classified into three main types, based on their mode of action: blast mines, shaped charge mines, and off-route mines.


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  • Blast mines are the simplest and most common type of anti-tank mine. They contain a large amount of high explosive that detonates when a vehicle passes over or near them, creating a powerful shockwave that damages or destroys the vehicle's wheels, tracks, suspension, or hull. Blast mines can be buried under the ground or laid on the surface. Some examples of blast mines are the German Tellermine 35 , the Soviet TM-62 , and the American M15 .



  • Shaped charge mines are a more sophisticated type of anti-tank mine. They contain a smaller amount of high explosive that is shaped into a cone or a hemisphere that focuses the blast energy into a narrow jet of metal that penetrates the vehicle's armor. Shaped charge mines can be buried under the ground or attached to a stake or a tripod above the ground. Some examples of shaped charge mines are the German Riegelmine 43 , the Soviet TMK-2 , and the British No. 75 Hawkins grenade .



Off-route mines are a relatively new type of anti-tank mine. They contain a shaped charge warhead that is connected to a sensor or a trigger that detects the presence or movement of a vehicle within a certain range or direction. Off-route mines can be hidden on the side of a road or a trail, or mounted on a vehicle or an aircraft. When Visual inspection can be done by using binoculars, cameras, or drones, but it is also limited by the visibility and camouflage of the mines.


  • Metal detectors: This is a method of detecting anti-tank mines by using a device that emits an electromagnetic field and detects the presence of metal objects. Metal detectors can be handheld, vehicle-mounted, or robot-mounted, and can scan the ground for buried or surface-laid mines. Metal detectors are effective against most types of anti-tank mines, but they can also be fooled by metal clutter or interference.



  • Mine rollers: This is a method of detecting and clearing anti-tank mines by using a device that consists of a heavy cylinder or a series of wheels that are attached to the front of a vehicle. Mine rollers are designed to trigger the mines by applying pressure or vibration, and to protect the vehicle and its occupants from the blast. Mine rollers can clear a path through a minefield, but they can also miss some mines or cause secondary explosions.



  • Mine flails: This is a method of detecting and clearing anti-tank mines by using a device that consists of a rotating drum or chain with metal hammers or balls that are attached to the front of a vehicle. Mine flails are designed to detonate the mines by striking them with force, and to protect the vehicle and its occupants from the blast. Mine flails can clear a wide area of a minefield, but they can also damage the terrain or cause collateral damage.



  • Mine plows: This is a method of detecting and clearing anti-tank mines by using a device that consists of a blade or a rake that is attached to the front of a vehicle. Mine plows are designed to push or pull the mines aside, creating a safe lane for the vehicle and other vehicles to follow. Mine plows can clear a narrow area of a minefield, but they can also leave some mines exposed or displaced.



  • Explosive breaching: This is a method of detecting and clearing anti-tank mines by using an explosive charge that is placed on or near the suspected minefield. Explosive breaching is designed to detonate the mines by creating a shockwave, and to create a gap in the minefield for vehicles or troops to pass through. Explosive breaching can clear a large area of a minefield, but it can also cause environmental damage or civilian casualties.



Examples of anti-tank mines in recent conflicts




Anti-tank mines have been used in many conflicts around the world, both by state and non-state actors. Some of the examples are:



  • The Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988): Both sides used anti-tank mines extensively along the border and in the disputed territories, creating one of the largest minefields in history. The Iranian forces used mostly Soviet-made TM-46 and TM-57 blast mines, while the Iraqi forces used mostly Italian-made VS-2.2 and VS-3.6 shaped charge mines. The war resulted in thousands of casualties and injuries from landmines, as well as massive environmental damage.



  • The Gulf War (1990-1991): The Iraqi forces used anti-tank mines to defend their positions in Kuwait and southern Iraq, as well as to hinder the coalition forces' advance. The Iraqi forces used mostly Chinese-made Type 72 blast mines and Italian-made VS-2.2 shaped charge mines, as well as some improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The coalition forces used various methods to detect and clear the mines, such as mine rollers, mine plows, explosive breaching, and air strikes. The war resulted in hundreds of casualties and injuries from landmines, as well as significant economic losses.



  • The War in Afghanistan (2001-present): The Taliban and other insurgent groups have used anti-tank mines to attack the Afghan government and NATO forces, as well as civilians and humanitarian workers. The insurgent groups have used mostly Soviet-made TM-46 and TM-62 blast mines, as well as some IEDs made from old artillery shells or fertilizer. The Afghan government and NATO forces have used various methods to detect and clear the mines, such as metal detectors, mine dogs, robots, and demining teams. The war has resulted in thousands of casualties and injuries from landmines, as well as severe humanitarian and development challenges.



  • The War in Donbass (2014-present): The Ukrainian government and pro-Russian separatists have used anti-tank mines to create defensive lines and blockades along the contact line in Donbass. The Ukrainian forces used mostly Soviet-made TM-62 and TM-64 blast mines, while the separatist forces used mostly Russian-made MON-50 and MON-90 shaped charge mines, as well as some IEDs. The war has resulted in hundreds of casualties and injuries from landmines, as well as ongoing humanitarian and security challenges.



  • The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict (2020): The Armenian and Azerbaijani forces used anti-tank mines to defend their positions and hinder their opponents in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and its surroundings. The Armenian forces used mostly Soviet-made TM-62 and TM-72 blast mines, while the Azerbaijani forces used mostly Turkish-made MKE MOD 1 and MKE MOD 2 shaped charge mines, as well as some Israeli-made Harop loitering munitions. The conflict resulted in thousands of casualties and injuries from landmines, as well as massive environmental damage and displacement.



How anti-tank mines affect civilians and the environment




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